Economic pressures are the most evident cause of migration of indigenous people. Almost all migratory movements are in some way linked to the economic difficulties faced by indigenous peoples. Cross cultural examination of the status of migrated indigenous people is required.
How is indigenous migration changing indigenous cultures? Do they lose their identities as indigenous peoples when they leave their traditional lands? Migration of indigenous peoples from settled communities that reside in rural areas can be voluntary or forced, depending on the conditions present at the places of origin. Examples of voluntary migrations are seasonal movements during harvesting periods of workers participating in the cash economy. Some of those communities migrate to jobs in the agricultural, forestry or fishing industries. Indigenous people are among the most vulnerable groups when natural disaster occurs. The reasons include a greater dependence on natural resources, the remoteness of some of their territories, disenfranchisement of some of the groups from the rest of society, and difficult access to aid and rescue missions. As with other rural and remote communities, some indigenous peoples are at a disadvantage because they lack the necessary expertise or technology to mitigate the effects of natural disasters on their communities. Diminishing opportunities for economic survival and development in their places of origin are among the most pressing factors pushing indigenous peoples to migrate. Low or nil formal education, language barriers, limited marketable skills for urban employment and inadequate labour laws prevent their economic advancement. Cross- cultural examination of the status of migrated indigenous people is required for future policy making process at the regional level.