From the 1930s to the late 1970s in Africa, education policies became part of the agenda of various education policy makers. Europeans or later African nationalist leaders had locally strong and long term inputs in the education field which was unevenly welcome by people with contrasting results.
From the 1930s to the late 1970s, in Africa whatever European rule it had been submitted to, education policies, free education schemes, school building programs became part of the agenda of various administrations. Europeans or later African nationalists had strong and long term inputs in that field which was unevenly welcome by people with contrasting results. At the apex of colonialism (1930s), during the self-government era and after independences (up to late 70s), policy makers could have had various aims according to the time but they have impacted quite strongly educational structures in many post colonial states as well as individual behaviours and collective ideologies toward education. In some countries, priority given to school development has even shaped national or collective identities as well as long term political speeches. In many case, it is in cities - but also in rural areas - that these educational policies were framed, implemented and where they reached successes by convincing (or not) people of the importance of school for the new nations. The panel aims at presenting the social and political aftermaths of these policies whatever they were shaped for during these 50 years of long « transition » identified as colonial and post-colonial, not only to study the now well known « aventure ambigüe » of African individuals having been westernized by missionary or state owned schools but also to analyse in which way the « school desire » (Charton, 1997) could have lead to local specific developments where ambitious policies have been implemented.