This panel aims to explore, to analyze and to question cheating as a social universe of representations and as modes of actions and control over the norm. Different social groups have specific understanding of norms and justice, and cheating can be treated ambivalently according to context.
Measuring and categorizing are actions and practices aimed at organizing knowledge and giving meaning to the world. Cheating belongs to the illusion of controlling knowledge and chaos. It implies capacities to defraud and abilities to hide, efforts made not to be discovered. Cheating, as competition, belongs to everyday life. In the competition game, we have to measure, to define evaluation rules, and to compare. We also need to create situations where injustice is not possible. The objective is to explore, to analyze and to question cheating as a social universe of representations and as modes of actions and control over the norm. The contributors are invited to offer a theoretical reflexion and empirical data about precise contexts of cheating (in game, sport, measure, economy, informatics....). The idea is to show that different social groups have specific representations or understanding of norms and justice, when implemented; that cheating, although a deliberate action to divert for one's own benefit and at the expense of other people rules, patterns and ethical standards, is treated ambivalently according to contexts, can be punished or on the contrary valued.