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This panel deals with one of the major dilemmas (and contradictions) within the migration and development nexus debate linked to the labor market needs and impact of knowledge migration. These dilemmas (and contradictions) can be juxtaposed with the reality of demographic shifts and economic globalization and digitalization/automation that has altered modes of production and labor market conditions. The need to meet new labor market demands and address domestic economic growth challenges drives both political debate and policy priorities within the European Union. International knowledge migration is one dimension of human mobility that receives a lot of policy attention especially on the perceived implications for European economies and societies as well as the countries of origin. The effects of this pattern of mobility is framed within the debates about 'Brain drain'/ 'brain gain' /'brain circulation' and conceptualized through the lens of economics of labor migration but also within perspectives that examine the interdependencies between development and migration or consider migrants as transnational development agents. In the case of Africa, many trained knowledge workers join the African intellectual diaspora abroad in large numbers. Policy responses in recent times include efforts by European funding agencies to support African knowledge development. However, questions that remain challenging include What is the evidence of costs and benefits of International knowledge migration, and what are the effects of policies aimed at knowledge migration from Africa? What roles do the African diaspora intellectuals play in nurturing, or challenging Africa's knowledge sector? And what about the roles of diaspora intellectuals in decolonizing the academy, both in Europe and in Africa