Searching ways for Sustainable Development of society is actual problem. Non-industrial societies had unique decisions in traditions of using effective technologies that are friendly to Nature and that guarantee viable human life-support activities in a long-term regime.
The position of Ethnological/Cultural Anthropological knowledge in a changing future is depends, in particular, of a situation in Nature - Society relationships. Many Modern problems is a result of disharmony in Nature - Society relationships. Post-industrial society has reached critical boundaries in many parameters in its use of the Nature. Solving this problem depends of using some new models, some changes in policy affecting Human - Nature relationships. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992) has declared that it is essential for survival that ways be found to sustainable development that guarantee equal possibilities in using Nature for future generations and for Modern people. Reaching a balance (harmonizing relationships between nature and society), in a long-term perspective, can be achieved through the active use of technologies and practices friendly to nature, and through technologies directed toward cardinal principles of adaptation of Human Life-support activities to local niches which are sometimes modeled in folk/indigenous cultures. These non-industrial societies have survived through fixed unique decisions in traditions of using effective technologies that are friendly to Nature and that guarantee viable human life-support activities in a long-term regime. We hope to discuss the role / value of Indigenous / Folk cultures in solving society's urgent problems in the light of discourse on sustainability.