Agricultural trade, market access and food security in Africa
(Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta)
Sarah Edewor (Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta)
Oyinlola Ogunpaimo (Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta)
Paper short abstract:
One of the great concern and problem to population within the Africa (developing nations) continent is food security. The relationship between trade and food security is imperative considering the trade agenda in World Trade Organisation (WTO) in relation to Agreement on Agriculture (AoA).
Paper long abstract:
Trade is considered to be one of the key elements in achieving sustainable and long-term development. Trade in itself induce economic growth and possible reduction of excessive trade barriers at home (within Africa nations) is important as improving market access abroad. Reducing trade-distorting subsidies and trade barriers within the WTO negotiation would possibly boost food production in developing countries where agricultural development is affected by subsidy practices. Agricultural agreement rested on three pillars: market access, domestic support and export competition. With market access, countries agree to convert their protection measures into import taxes (tariffs) which can then be 'bound' (fixed) and negotiated downward, aimed at encouraging domestic production as tariffs are most times convenient farm support measures to developing countries. Farmers in developing countries struggle to compete with subsidised production and exports in richer countries that are trading more on industrialised goods, this thereby distort agricultural trade. Understanding 'market access' segment of the AoA is necessary as the conversion of restrictions at times to tariffs could make producers face increased competition from import as such there are avenue for developing countries to provide temporary protection by raising import duties to deal with import surges.
Welfare impact of globalisation on agricultural trade in the 21st century