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The panel represents researches funded by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 19-18-00162 "Central Asia and International Relations in the 18th-19th centuries") carried out at the Institute of Languages and Culture named after Leo Tolstoy.
The eastern coast of the Caspian Sea is inhabited by Kazakhs and Turkmens, who today belong to Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Until the beginning of the 20th century these peoples were part of the Russian Empire, which established various systems of government for them. This was caused by different goals that the empire pursued annexing Mangyshlak and Turkmenistan and by Russian invasion into different parts of the Caspian coast at different times. The presented reports are devoted to various periods and aspects of the history of this sub-region of Central Asia. A special part of this sub-region is the Mangyshlak (Mangystau) peninsula. Here lived Kazakhs of the Younger Juz interest to whom the Russian Empire first showed in the 1840s. But although the peninsula was the only transit to the Khiva Khanate and the Bukhara Emirate, its population was controlled from Orenburg. The remoteness from the administrative center created many difficulties. Low level of interaction with the imperial authorities caused confusion among the local population and served as reason to resist the administrative reforms. When the Russian Empire annexed the Turkmen steppe, the Turkmens received an administrative system which was softer than the Kazakh one. Even after the inclusion of the Kazakhs of Mangyshlak and the Turkmens in one Trans-Caspian region, administrative differences for both peoples were preserved. Another issue of sub-regional history is the reasons for the Russian invasion into the Turkmen steppe. The need to strengthen relations with Iran and stabilize the situation on the southeastern coast of the Caspian Sea became important reasons for the formation of the Trans-Caspian military department in Turkmenistan. One of the reports is devoted to the relationship between Iran and the Turkmens in 1874-1881. After the military and political consolidation, the Russian government moved on to the economic development of Turkmenistan. Another report is devoted to the problem of including the Trans-Caspian sub-region in the all-Russian market. The young states of Central Asia are not only creating new historical narratives today. Strengthening of national statehood is carried out through the popularization of sacred places from the historical past of the peoples and territories of the region. Another report of the panel is devoted to the scalar geography of Mangyshlak (Mangystau).