Peace is an outcome of conflict resolution. Many countries are diversified in terms of both language and nationalities. Development, be it human or sustainable, needs peace to build a harmonious multi-ethnic country free from environmental devastation and human rights violation.
Peace and sustainable development remain the aspiration of the multi-ethnic countries. But in many cases, the governments have considered such diversities more as a threat than a resource. There is a need to reassert the value and importance of cultural diversity and pluralism and meet the challenges to peaceful co-existence in multi-ethnic societies. There is a growing realization that such countries need to look back on the richness of country in terms of its unity in diversity, rich value system, and traditional wisdom and world view of peace, harmony and sustainable development. Anthropologists are especially well-situated to examine the global human rights priorities, instruments, and treaties with the efforts of activists and community groups seeking justice in specific contexts. Indeed, anthropologists working in academic and applied settings have contributed to the growth of international ethnographic literature on human rights violations, and on human rights concepts as they are engaged around the world. This work can contribute to the shaping of new democratic spaces for effective promotion and protection of human rights. It can do so by informing more flexible, inclusive, and culturally sensitive interpretations and applications of human rights instruments and treaties to address diversely situated rights violations. One cannot stop exploitation of natural resources but what one is now looking for is how to achieve sustainable development. This may demand new a development strategy with genuine participatory approach and creating a process of natural resource use which is open, accessible and accountable for the security of the larger population.