Rites and rituals are part of both festive and everyday occassions. It may span from the complex religious practice - involving coreography, acts and hymns - to the everyday (apparently profane) handshake. We here present multiple views on rituals and ritualizing.
Through heritage and utopia - imaginary pasts and futures - we are interpreting our existence and forming our actions in our day-to-day realities. The places and content of the research presented follow below. History and development 01. N. Golant: Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria, Vlachs of different states celebrate certain customs differently. 02. C. Bregenhøj: Denmark, Jan. 5, Epiphany maskers; Carnival - historic inspiration from Venice. 03. V. Petreska: Macedonia, Jan. 19, Orthodox Epiphany - maskers, festival, context, presentation. - Modern rituals 04. L. Vesik: Estonia, Feb. 14, variations in the Anglo-American Valentine tradition 1980-2015. 05. I. Nedin: Bulgaria, first vine stem cutting in Ilindentzi village turned into a festival. 06. A. Kuperjanov: Estonia, new religious group constructs its rituals. - Individual involvement and change 07. M. Magoulick: USA, MI, Native American woman undermining male authority concerning rituals. 08. J. Zamorska: Mexico, Oaxaca Valley, female involvment changes local festivity and social pattern.