Environmental policy and territorial identities in Eastern Amazonia
Véronique Boyer (CNRS)
Paper short abstract:
In this paper we aim to discuss the emergence of new forms of territorial claims under the label of cultural identities in Brazilian Amazon, also as an indicator of a crisis of the territorial management policy that stands as the backbone of the environmental Brazilian model.
Paper long abstract:
Since the Rio Conference (Earth Summit) in 1992, environment issues have become one of the most important topics of the Brazilian political agenda. As a consequence of these efforts, the Brazilian state tries through its territorial management agenda to merge land reform and land tenure (socio-political institutions) issues with environmental protection policies. The creation of a National System of Protected Areas (SNUC) was based on the idea that local population (seen as "traditional" population) should be an important partner of territorial management practices. After 15 years of experience, however, the expectations of local peoples' political participation and prospects of improvement of local economies through sustainable development have not been fulfilled. In addition, recently we have witnessed the emergence of new forms of territorial claims, often presented under the label of cultural identities (ethnogenesis for instance). Some groups regarded as traditional are claiming ethnicity as a major criterion for territorial ascription. By doing so, the so called traditional groups gain greater autonomy in the use of natural resources, as well as a relatively privileged access to law enforcement system and public services. Our point to discuss here is, whether these events are indicators of a crisis (or at least an indicator of a strong pressure upon the conservation units) of the territorial policy that stands as the backbone of the environmental Brazilian model. In our paper we want to consider this topic based on field research studies conducted in different settings in Eastern Amazonia.
Global appropriation of bio-resources and its impacts on local people in international perspective