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Accepted Paper:

Layered Structure of Subordinate Clauses in Early Modern Japanese  
Yuho Kitazaki (Kochi University)

Paper short abstract:

Subordinate clauses in Japanese have a layered structure that contains different items. However, details are unknown except for the Heian Period and for present day Japanese, and it might be an error to link them together. This paper describes subordinate clauses in the Edo Period, using the CHJ.

Paper long abstract:

This paper considers the layered structure of subordinate clauses (SC) in Japanese and how it has changed over time. It is well known that SC in Present Japanese (PJ) has a layered structure that contains different items. In the following examples (1), -(s)aser- (causative) can connect to tutu (iterative), nara (conditional), ga (adversative), but -(a)na- (negative) cannot be used with iterative, and =daroo (conjecture) cannot connect to conditional as well as iterative.

(1) Gohan=o tabe{-sase / *-nai / *-ru=daroo}-tutu,

Gohan=o tabe{-saseru / -nai / *-ru=daroo}=nara,

Gohan=o tabe{-saseru / -nai / -ru=daroo}=ga,

In addition to this data in PJ, a similar layered structure can be observed in Early Middle Japanese (EMJ).

(2) Kokoromotonak-u omof-ase-tutu, (Tales of Genji)

Sakura=no sak-azar-aba, (Tosa Nikki)

Jiti=ni=wa ni-zar-am-edo, (Tales of Genji)

(3) {-(s)ase / *-(a)zu / *-(a)mu}-tutu,

{-(s)ase- / -(a)zar- / *-(a)mu}-(a)ba,

{-(s)asur / -(a)zar / -(a)m}-edo(mo),

In these examples, the ability of each of -(s)ase- (causative), -(a)zu- or -(a)zar- (negative), -(a)m- (conjecture) connected to -tutu (iterative), -(a)ba (conditional), -(r)edomo (adversative) is parallel to the relationship in (1). Here, conjecture or intentional -(y)oo and =daroo in PJ and -(a)m- in EMJ are both located in the periphery of these layers. We may conclude that the structures of EMJ and PJ can be connected, but it might be an error based on examples from Early Modern Japanese (EModJ). In (4), -oo which has a similar function to -(a)m-, =daroo, is located before the conditional 'nara'.

(4) Ima=de nara-oo=nara nagauta=da. 'If you want to learn something now, nagauta is good.' (Kyōja Hōgen, 1771)

Since morphologically annotated data in the CHJ is useful to find connections between several elements, this paper aims to describe the layered structure in EModJ. Based on the above, we consider the history of SC from EMJ to PJ.

Panel Ling02
Studies of Early Modern Japanese Based on the Corpus of Historical Japanese