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Authors:Rieko Hayakawa (Doshisha University)
Jennifer Anson (Office of the President)
Paper short abstract:
ICT4D attracted transnational crimes by Chinese in developing countries. Pacific Island Countries developed ICT for most of their remote areas, but now Chinese Cyber Criminals use these networks. Why did they come and what is happening? This paper examines the meaning of "Development" from ICT4D.
Paper long abstract:
China`s penetration of the telecommunications of Pacific Island Countries (PICs) has been of concern to the US, Australia and Japan. Since 2000 ICT4D has become the main agenda for international arenas, with PICs having the opportunity to connect to the world and WIFI reaching the "last one mile" problems. PICs are spread across the vast Pacific Ocean and characterized by small economies. Palau for example has less than 20,000 people while Samoa has 100,000. Chinese telecommunication companies such as Huawei started to approach PICs through their mobile phone service to backbone cable. Resulting security issues range from military perspectives to online gambling and money laundering. These criminal activities came into the island's society through multiple lines, ranging from bribery of PICs lawmakers to the utilization of passports from foreign countries which eliminated the identity of criminals. Hundreds of Chinese nationals have entered these small PICs and have worked for the illegal online casinos under illegal status. Sometimes they owned or rented whole complexes to operate cybercrimes. Chinese criminals have also tried to influence PIC officials to change the laws of their governments for the easing of cybercrime activities.
ICT development was originally intended for the people of these island countries to improve welfare and education. However, ICT infrastructure and the weak legal capacity of Island governments have attracted Chinese cybercriminals. The US, Japan and Australia have tried to support safe telecommunication services such as Clean Network for PICs. Yet how can PICs deal with these cybercrimes within such a limited capacity?
China's digital expansion in the Global South I