Focussing mainly on the second half of the 19th-century and on the first half of the 20th-century, the panel will discuss the internationalization of science, the nationalization of culture, as well as the tensions and dialectical interactions between both these movements during that period.
Eijkman's report on scientific Internationalism - L'internationalisme scientifique, 1911 - could well be considered the swan song of a globalization process that had been molding the world since the mid 19th-century. Three years later the Great War would put a strong brake on that process with a most significant and highly symbolical first act of war: Britain's cutting off the transatlantic cables that linked Germany to the western world. The disruptions brought about by wars to the flow of communication, information and knowledge during the first half of the 20th-century were the obvious and visible results of the tensions between two contradictory movements that had been developing side by side since the mid 19th-century: on one hand, the scientific and technological Internationalism that provided the conditions for the "integration of the world through large flows of goods, capital, and people" (James, The creation and destruction of value, 2009); on the other hand, the Cultural Nationalism that was increasingly pervading the national public opinion of most European countries to the point of academic institutionalization (e.g. the epic foundation of some of the modern national philologies by the mid 19th-century). Focussing mainly on the second half of the 19th-century and on the first half of the 20th-century, the panel seeks papers dealing with: - the internationalization of science (building of international knowledge transfer networks); - the nationalization of culture (development and institutionalization of cultural national movements); - the tensions and dialectical interactions between these networks and the evolution of each of them.