Tatar emigration into the East Asia in the 20th century
Larisa Usmanova (Russian State University for Humanities)
This paper focuses on a history of Tatar migration to China before Russian Revolution following its flow into different parts of East Asia (Korea, Japan, Shanghai) after it, explains the reasons of migration (at the first as labor migration, next merchandizing, last as emigrants without nationality), facts of contradictions and ideological struggles inside of the Diaspora between leaders. This paper is based on results of my PhD research investigating archival materials from Japanese, Russian archives, Tatar emigrants periodicals, especially newspaper «Milly Bairaq» (1935-1945, Mukden) that are kept in Japanese archives and at the first time openly researched myself, individual emigrants' letters and diaries. I argue that Tatar migration became a big partner of Japanese government in «Islamic policy» carrying out over the East-Asian region. The main results of cultural and political aspects of the partnership were, besides of surviving Tatar culture from Soviet and Chinese assimilation, an official accepting Turk-Tatar and Muslim cultures as well as Islamic religion in Japan and Korea, an intercultural intellectual exchange of two different civilizations - Confucian and Islamic. Moreover, I argue that Tatar Diaspora itself was able to create a strong organizing structure which let it save national identity and keep national model of nation according the Gayz Ishaki' «Idel-Ural state» concept. The Tatar migration on the East Asia evaluated from Muslim community of labor migrants through emigrants' community with Muslim identity (Russian muslims) to a centralized society over the region with strong national Turk-Tatar identity. The dream to recover the Tatar nation-state was not able come true. But experience to organize nation in emigration with exterritorial status could help Tatar emigrants who re-move to new places over the world to find their new homes and keep national identity till present time. In framework of «personal history» approach, stories of Tatar emigrants' families are pictured the global view on transnational history of Tatar migration in 20th century.
Diaspora, Migration and Resistance in Eurasia