Non-recognition by the nation-states, homogenization for 'modern mode of life', development interventions and climatic displacements have generated a lot of refugees and IDPs of IP origin. The issues may be explored to see if any particular pattern emerges across the two regions.
Indigenous Peoples live across South and South East Asia and, from pre-historic times, they have had to move from one place to another for a number of reasons that must be understood in a broader historical context. Over the last century, factors like non-recognition by the nation-states, development interventions and climatic displacements have generated a lot of refugees and IDPs of IP origin. In fact, the "modern mode of life", with its perpetual preoccupation with 'order-building' in the form of homogenization and 'economic progress' disregarding culture and identities, have produced "redundant people" who are either politically intolerable as being non-mainstream or locally unemployable as they do not subscribe to imposed occupations and, thus, are forced to seek shelter away from their homes. Land and territories comprise a crucially important place in IP lives as any forced displacement create not only impacts negatively on their economies and livelihood patterns, but that also impacts severely on the very survival of the people as a distinct cultural entity with distinct languages, institutions, beliefs, etc. Besides, the desperate plight of refugees and the indignities and insecurities that they continuously face on a daily basis, lead to the "worldlessness", as termed by Hannah Arendt to define the conditions where a person doesn't belong to a world in which they matter as human beings. It will be interesting to explore the migration, refugee and IDP issues of the indigenous peoples in South and South East Asia and see if any particular pattern emerges across the two regions.