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Applied Anthropology in Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R) of Displaced Peoples (DPs) in India: Relevance and Role
Ram Babu Mallavarapu
(Central University of Odisha, Koraput, India)
Meera Swain (Central University of Odisha, India)
Bharikar Kotnak Srinivas (Central University of Odisha)
Paper short abstract:
Displacement due to development drew attention of social scientists all over the world. The paper examines the impact and outcomes of R&R policy, and also the relevance and role of applied anthropology in R&R of DPs, particulalry the indigenous communties in India in the context of globalisation.
Paper long abstract:
Fernandes and Paranjpye (1997) estimate that around 16-38 million people resettled as a result of large dams in India. Fernandes and Raj (1992) estimate that total moved in India because of dams and other infrastructure projects, mines and industries falls between 18.5 and 30 million. Estimates of those moved by dams alone exceed ten million. Studies reveal that only a fewer than 30% of those displaced due to development projects in the 1950s and 1960s resettled the situation for people displaced after 1970s is no different. About 25 million persons have been displaced since 1950s on account of developmental projects of which 40% are tribals. Less than 50% have been rehabilitated. The rest have been pauperised by the development process (Planning Commission and L.C. Jain 2000). However, after 1990s to present, these figures have been increased to a larger extent due to liberalised economic policies of state.
The R&R of displaced people have been remained as highly unsatisfactory in India. However, Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act (RFCTLARRA), 2013 and interventions of a few social scientists, social workers and other applied / action anthropologists have created new hopes for better practices / implementation of R&R initiatives. The paper examines drawbacks, impact and outcomes of RFCTLARRA, 2013, dimensions of economics of R&R costs and impoverishment risks in involuntary R&R as proposed by Michael M. Cernea, and also the relevance and role of applied anthropology in R&R of DPs, particulalry indigenous communties in India in the context of globalisation.
Forests and the Indigenous Communities Worldwide through Ages: A Struggle for Survival