Author:Chandreshwar Prasad (VBU Hazaribagh)
Paper short abstract:
Anthropology is a basic social science on human studies and in developing nations basically humanity is at peril – humans have lost the tracts of civilization unfortunately. Unless this trend is reversed, there is no salvation, and we shall be leading towards doom days – a global danger and chaos!
Paper long abstract:
According to knowledge classification (social sciences) by Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme (21 edn. 1996) of the USA, the subjects of Anthropology, Sociology, Statistics, Political Science, Economics, Law, Public Administration, Social Welfare, Education, Psychology, Trade and Commerce and Customs and Folklore have been brought under broad category of ‘social sciences.’ Anthropology is a subject of human studies; and human alone makes difference in the universe – right or wrong as per his/her studies/education and commitment. And this is the most basic and vital concern as to how have we been educated, how is our education and where are we leading to?
Greek philosopher Aristotle said that ‘man is born free but he is everywhere in chains’ – chains of caste & creed, language, culture, ignorance and poverty. Poverty can be taken to be the greatest chain. In Christian mythology ‘poverty is the punishment for the past sins’.
Human beings have to get rid of these chains. Without improving this situation, we cannot feel and enjoy freedom which is the ultimate goal of humanity. Ignorance and poverty lead to the greatest and serious vices, evils, corruption and crimes in the society; human values – righteousness, truth and honesty, compassion, goodness and human relations often deteriorate if not safeguarded. Overall we see degeneration and fall in the social values in human society today. U.S. Professor Abraham Herald Maslow emphatically states that ‘if human needs – physiological, social and personal are fulfilled then man can attain self-actualization, self-realization or Moksha, which is the ultimate goal of humanity. Hence, poverty and ignorance must be eliminated from the surface of this world in all parts and sections of human society. This is the supreme task’.
This paper will connect and integrate all those relations to human studies: tribals, primitive tribals, indigenous knowledge, forestry – social and community forest, ecology, agriculture, modernity and allied components for sustainable development.
Anthropology and conservation: inter-relationship and future perspective