Accepted Paper:

How should teachers design social studies lessons on history and archeology?  


Kihachiro Sakai

Paper short abstract:

Recently, Japanese tourists travelling abroad has increased annually. The ruins of Machu Picchu, a UNESCO World Heritage site, are a popular destination. The author designed a social studies lesson on Latin America, focusing on archeology. Lesson of Amish and tourism as ESD education will be also introduced.

Paper long abstract:

Recently,the number of Japanese tourists travelling abroad has increased annually by over 16million.

The ruins of Machu Picchu,a UNESCO World Heritage site,are a popular destination,despite being far away. However,Japanese tourists often know little about Latin America's ancient history. Therefore,the author designed social studies lessons on Latin America,focusing on archeology.

Additional reasons for this study are as follows;

First, social studies text book in Japan lack content on Latin America, especially in comparison to their coverage of Western Europe and the U.S.

Second, Japan has seen as increased number of JSL (Japanese as second language) students coming from Latin America.

Understanding Latin American history will benefit both JSL and Japanese students.

Third, archeological research is progressing rapidly.

The following three models lessons

1) present a comparative timeline of the Andes and Japan

2) focus on food,a topic familiar to students

3) discuss arheological hypotheses.

Lesson1: Machu Picchu as a World Heritage and Pre-Inca Times

Lesson2: The Inca Empire and Potatoes

Lesson3: Why did the Andes civilization develop in the mountain area rather than river basin?

These lesson models will be effective in social studies education.


(1)Kihachiro Sakai (1995) Social studies lesson design of culture studies to foster scientific cognition by using anthropology and time axis.

Syakaika-ronsou Vol.42

(2)Shinya Watanabe (2013) Andes bunmei keiseiki no Shinden syakai.

Research Papers of the Anthrophological Institute.Vol.1

(3)Yuji Seki (1997) Andes no Kokogaku Doseisya 

※I also introduce my lessons(e.g. Study of Amish County, Study of Horikawa river, Study of National Heritage conservation as ESD education)

Panel P010
Anthropology of human-nature relationship in 21st century Japan: perspectives from ecotourism and rural revitalization