Accepted Paper:

Nepalese inclusion and Chinese exclusion: from the perspective on Tibetan refugee communities in Nepal  

Author:

Yusuke Bessho (Hiroshima University, IDEC)

Paper short abstract:

This paper examines the mechanism of the counter-movements towards the particular national development projects in Nepal which are organized by the Tibetan refugee communities in conjunction with the Nepalese Buddhist's nationalistic activities based on their newly formed Buddhism identity.

Paper long abstract:

In the post monarchy era, while Nepal government raised "Inclusion" policy and groping for the framework of a new country, they deployed China-friendly diplomacy under Maoist's initiative. Formerly, Chinese government regards Nepal as "a hotbed" of the Tibetan secessionism against China, and has demanded to accept the "One China Policy" in exchange for the benefit of development. It means the Nepal government is approached by the necessity to show the clear attitude to the Tibet issue, so that it receives the huge development assistance from China. Thereby, the pressure for reducing the domestic Tibetan refugees' living space arose with progress of development. But, the Tibetan Diaspora monasteries in Nepal have already established influence tacitly into various Himalayan societies over five decades, and Tibetans cannot part with this important foundation easily. This paper explores the strained relation between the Tibetan refugee communities and the Nepali government under the new environment in contemporary Nepal where the political deformation has been caused by the Chinese development capital while there is great change of the political architecture of "De-Hinduisasion and Inclusion democracy."

Through the actual survey result on the Tibetan refugee communities and Nepalese Buddhist associations, I examine the mechanism of the counter-movements towards the particular national development projects which are organized by the Tibetans' anti-China development movements in conjunction with the Nepalese Buddhist's nationalistic activities based on the Buddhism identity which rises among them today. And it will show the excluded peoples' unique practice to influence the Inclusion policy by indirect means.

Panel P037
Comparative ethnography of 'inclusion' in Nepal: discourses, activities, and life-worlds