Modern land use and economy of forest Nenets in the zone of industrial development
Elena Volzhanina (Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS)
Paper short abstract:
The presentation raises questions of traditional land use and economy of forest Nenetses known as Vyngapur Nenetses, whose hunting and fishing territories and nomadic routes, are in the zone of industrial development.
Paper long abstract:
This research is focused primarily on the small local group of Nenetses from the Pur forest. The territory inhabited by the Vyngapur Nenetses was one of the first in the Iamal-Nenets District to attract oil and gas development companies in 1970's. At present, there are many towns in the region dedicated to Oil and Gas extraction where shift workers have settled. The region is divided into east and west parts by the Surgut railway - Novyi Urengoi. All of Vyngapur Nenetses are fishermen and reindeer-herders. Today, the Vyngapur Nenetses have a settled and semi-nomadic way of life. Employment in the agricultural sector and the possession of reindeer herds has had the effect of conserving some of their traditional camps. However, some of families lost their reindeer herding skills including the construction of traditional dwellings (especially the winter chum). These new phenomena have shortened the nomadic routes and people now stay in the same camp for a long time (20 and more years) and build cabins and various other non-mobile dwellings. This type of settlement was not typical for Nenets camps in the past when the only permanent dwellings would have been the accommodation trailers left behind by geological survey parties and expeditions The present land use and economy of the Vyngapur Nenetses is the result of the local group's adaptation to the changing ecological, social, economic and ethnic conditions brought about by the influence of industrial development in the last third of the 20th and in the 21st centuries.
Lines on the land: mobility and stasis in northern extractive landscapes