Role of working women's income and education in determining their social and political participation: an empirical evidence from a developing country
Ahmad Nawaz (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology)
Asad Ghalib (Liverpool Hope University)
Mariam Amjad (COMSATS University Islamabad)
Paper short abstract:
In patriarchal societies, women do tend to have less social and political participation. Whereas, literature suggests that increase in women's income and education do significantly increases social and political participation. This paper empirically investigates this phenomena in Pakistan's context.
Paper long abstract:
In many developing countries, women face discrimination on political and social front. And Pakistan is no exception where patriarchal structures exist and allocation of resources strongly favors men. It ranked at 144 out of 145 countries on Gender Gap Index in 2015 (Global Gender Gap Report, 2016).However,a recent literature suggests that deep-rooted changes in views are taking place (Inglehart etal., 2009; Wezel et al, 2010; and Amoranto et, al 2010). These changes are reshaping economic, political, and social values and perceptions in societies around the world, and Pakistan is no exception. This transformation largely rests with the increase in standard of living, knowledge and women's participation in public and political life. Consequently, it has resulted in changing roles and status of women in society through inclusion in social, political and economic spheres at large (Mahmud and Tasneem, 2014; Sanyaal, 2009).This paper therefore, investigates the impact of increase in women's education and share in household income on their political and social participation.The underlying study is quantitative in nature utilizing a primary data set.The questionnaire composed of Twenty-three questions in total including sub categories of each question. The semi structured questionnaire was developed by consulting various studies carried out in this area and discussion with academia.The final sample is comprised of 180 married women in an urban city of Lahore employed in formal sector i.e. universities, colleges, banks and beauty salons, and also in informal sector i,e. domestic helpers, tailors, beauticians and sales girls.
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