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Accepted Paper:

The importance of women in Islam and their role in Islamic society (based on the example of the Timurids' dynasty and statehood).   
Dinora Azimova (Union of Writers, Uzbekistan)


In counterbalance to the tenets of Taliban who - under the slogans of Islam injunctions - make Afghan women deprived from basic human rights such as movement, education and work, including teaching & research, the authors intend to highlight worldviews established in regards of women in the Quran and Hadiths. We also intended to bring to a light the role women occupied in a state, society and in a family of traditional eastern nations.

Using historical examples of Timurids' formation and subsequent Renaissance epoch, to highlight importance of women for a state structure. The most prominent female figure among Timurids was Bibi Khanum (Saray-mulk Khanum) - wife of Timur, who was originated from Chingizid dynasty. Notwithstanding, in Afghanistan a greater fame received another personality - mother of famous astronomer Ulugbek - Gawhar Shad Begim - consort of Timur’s youngest son Shokhrukh Mirzo. During their reign Herat was declared the capital of the Timurid Empire. By a beauty and splendor of constructions the city had competed with Florence - capital of Italian Quattrocento. However, centuries revolved, times have changed, & in nowadays it is difficult for Herat - especially after earthquake (October 7, S2023) - to enter such competitions. But what is remarkable, good memory of enlightened rulers is still alive. In 2010 women's university named after Gawhar Shad Begim who became famous for construction of mausoleums, khonako... - was opened in Kabul. Despite the fact that the last two years Afghan young girls are under the ban from studying at universities, elder that 10 years old girls are no longer allowed to attend school; & activity of female professors is prohibited... the doors of Gawhar Shad University are still open. However currently - only for the male students.

In family and entourage of Timur there were almost unknown personalities who played a significant role in formation and strengthening of Timurid state, such as mother of his eldest son Jahongir - Ulzhay Turkan - a brave warrior lady who managed to save Timur from captivity. We will present little-known facts about a heroic role of Samarkand women, who withstood city siege after the “Mud battle” with Mughal khan Ilyas Khoja - one of the very few battles that Timur had lost.

Paying tribute to the female guardians of the dynasty and state, Amir Timur appreciated their contribution, creating conditions for their talents to be revealed, and good intentions to be realized.

Panel REL02
The Religions of Central Asia: Past, Present, and Future
  Session 1 Saturday 8 June, 2024, -