Paper long abstract:
Nonstate agencies are the primary providers of protection; deterrence; investigation; resolution; and punishment for most Africans in most circumstances. For this reason alone, states should be evaluating what if anything should be the contribution of the nonstate sector in the future and how it might fit into any national security policy. The paper begins by considering some of the definitional problems with the term ‘nonstate’ policing and suggests, despite the diversity, certain commonalties. It then proceeds to examine the arguments for and against the state supporting its activities. Though, in conclusion, it argues the case for the construction of new alliances and the strengthening of existing ones between nonstate and state policing, it doubts whether there is yet the political will to formally abandon the claim to be the sole provider of policing. Ultimately the question of who delivers justice and security services is a political and normative one.