Paper short abstract:
This research analyses changing landscapes in 3 temporal moments: Integration Period, Spanish Colonization and Present in archaeological sites of Ecuador. Is discussed which practices can be rescued from the past to cope with environmental and agriculture vulnerability towards weather variability
Paper long abstract:
The following study presents part of the interdisciplinary project "Cultural and Technological Principles Associated with Occupation Modalities during the Integration Period: Value and Use in Present Day", which was developed in 5 archaeological sites. Particularly, this paper exposes the findings from the geographic perspective with the support of different type of information gathered by anthropologists, archaeologist, historians and geographers in the Andean and Costal regions of Ecuador. A comparative study is held between both regions in the implementation of agriculture systems, its biodiversity and ecosystem management. Each case is supported with several maps in three temporal moments: the Integration Period (500BC-1500AC), the Spanish Colonization (1500 AC) and Present. The objective is to identify the landscape transformation within time, the management of resources, adaptation practices and technologies in changing environments. Several data collected from the field, historical files, geodatabases and bibliography, is mapped to build models of past landscapes and territories. Spatial Analyst Tools such as map algebra, density, georeferencing and species distribution modelling are applied by the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Each scenario is evaluated in terms of adaptability to the changing context and the social and technological responses to that context. Specifically, the modes to adapt to weather variability and seasonality are presented. The paper concludes that past practices can be adopted in the present for reducing the vulnerability in the agriculture sector and local economies. For this, is essential to consider social organization and cultural contexts where modes of subsistence are produced.
Indigenous populations-vegetation-climate relationship in the past: what can this teach us about sustainable vegetation use in the present?